Azad Jammu & Kashmir: A Summary

Kashmir Collage

British Raj:

1845, Maharaja Gulab Singh supports British against Sikh Punjab.
1846, 16 Mar, British sell the state & people of Jammu & Kashmir to the Maharaja Gulab Singh for 7.5m rupees
1931, 13 July, ‘Martyrs Day’ uprising
1934, Legislative Assembly formed
1946, ‘Quit Kashmir’ Campaign is launched against the Maharaja
1947, 19 July, Elected Members of the Legislative Kashmir Assembly passed a resolution, requiring Kashmir to accede to Pakistan. Maharaja’s army responds by demobilising Muslim troops and initiating a campaign of ethnic cleansing massacring 200,000 Muslims in Jammu, Muslims begin to flee the state.

1947 Independence:

14 Aug, Birth of Pakistan
15 Aug, Birth of Indian, Maharaja of Kashmir enters into a standstill agreement with Pakistan, (Pakistan takes over the British responsibilities of defence, foreign affairs and communication on behalf of the state and outside world.) Kashmir is not part of either Pakistan or India. Maharaja initiates a systematic plan to import Hindus and Sikhs from East Punjab. Maharaja receives an infantry battalion and a battery of Mountain artillery from the Sikh Maharaja of Patiala (India).
23 Aug, Demobilised Kashmiri Veterans of WWII refuse to surrender arms to Maharaja’s troops and instead launch the freedom struggle, tribesmen from NWFP (Pakistan) who fought in the same British WW2 units as their Kashmiri Neighbours respond to the call to arms.
24 Oct, Declaration to set up the Government of Azad Jammu of Kashmir
25 Oct, Maharaja flees State capital, as Kashmiri’s forces approach.
26 Oct, Maharaja allegedly offers Kashmir to India in return for troops; this letter is later proved to be false by British Professor Alastair Lamb.  (Standstill agreement with Pakistan is still in force, Maharaja offer is in direct violation of standstill agreement since only Pakistan has taken over British responsibilities of defence, foreign affairs  consent
27 Oct, Indian troops enter State; Mountbatten makes the accession conditional on the wishes of the people; by Dec’ one third State is liberated from the Maharaja.

1948 The UN Stalemate:

1 Jan, India takes issue to UN.
21 Apr, India, Pakistan & UN agree, on ceasefire agreement, withdrawal of outside forces and the right of Kashmiri’s to determine their future.
1948-57, 11 UN Security Council Resolutions (No’s 38, 39, 47, 51, 80, 91, 96, 98, 122, 123, 126) were passed granting the Kashmiri’s the right to Self-Determination, which India has failed to abide by.
1958, onwards the Soviet Union veto UN attempts to resolve the situation.
1965 and 1971 two full scale wars between India and Pakistan

1989 The Uprising:

Resentful of decades-old indifference of the world community towards their plight and threatened by growing state suppression; Kashmiri’s rose in revolt against India.
On two occasions, virtually the entire population of the Capital came onto the streets of Srinagar in an unparalleled demonstration and presented petitions at the offices of the UN Military Observers Group.
India responded by imposing direct rule, passed a series of draconian laws. Like the (AFSPA) Armed Forces Special Powers Act, this empowered INDIAN SECURITY FORCES TO SEARCH HOMES WITHOUT WARRANTS AND THE RIGHT TO . SHOOT-TO-KILL WITH TOTAL IMMUNITY FROM PROSECUTION.
Over the next 15 years the violations in Kashmir were highlighted in world Parliaments, as the Vale of Kashmir was turned into the most heavily occupied place in the world.

1998, 11 May India goes Nuclear.
1998, 28 May Pakistan goes Nuclear.
1999, May, War in Kargil (Kashmir) between Pakistan & India.