Notables of Jammu & Kashmir

Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas (1904-1967)

Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas (1904-1967) was born in Jammu, he was a lawyer and a leading politician of Jammu and Kashmir.

He graduated from the Prince of Wales College, Jammu. He received his law degree from the Lahore Law College, and started his career as a lawyer in Jammu. He was offered a position of Sub-Judge but he refused to serve oppressive Dogra Rulers.

He reorganized the socio-political organization Young Men’s Muslim Association, which was established earlier in 1909 and was the only platform that Muslims were using to raise their political voice in Jammu and Kashmir. This Young Men’s Muslim Association conducted massive demonstrations against the Dogra ruler Maharaja Hari Singh.

Political movements in the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir started earlier than in any other princely state of India. In 1932, the All-Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference was established, to campaign for the rights of Muslims a Kashmiri Sheikh Abdullah was elected as its’ president and a Jammuite Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas, was elected as its’ general secretary.

Until mid-1930’s the Muslim Leaders in India were trying to ensure maximum political safeguards for Muslims within the framework of Federation of India in terms of seeking maximum autonomy for Muslim majority provinces.

In 1938, the party was renamed the National Conference in order to make it representative of all Kashmiris independent of religion. Years of communal unrest in India, resulted in the passing of the Lahore Resolution on 23 March 1940, calling for a separate homeland for Muslims. This resulted in the National Conference splitting into two factions, Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas did not trust pledges made by Nehru, he led the Muslims who wanted to to join with Pakistan in to forming their own separate political party in 1941; reviving the original name Muslim Conference.

The Dogra Hindus of Jammu were originally organised under the banner of All Jammu and Kashmir Rajya Hindu Sabha.

In 1942, Balraj Madhok arrived in the state as a propagandist of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS). "National Volunteer Organisation" or "National Patriotic Organisation". Madhok established branches of the RSS in Jammu and later in the Kashmir Valley. Madhok boasted that he mobilised 200 RSS volunteers to ‘defend’ Srinagar at the request of the Maharaja. ‘RSS volunteers’ actively worked with the Maharaja forces in killing 500,000 Muslims in Jammu & Kashmir. The RSS is an Indian right-wing, Hindu nationalist, paramilitary volunteer organisation, that drew its’ initial inspiration from European right-wing groups during World War II, After partition RSS member Nathuram Vinayak Godse would go on to assassinate Ghandi on the 30 January 1948.

19 July 1947, the Muslim Conference passed a resolution demanded Kashmir affiliate with Pakistan. Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas was arrested for his political campaign and after the ceasefire was transferred to Pakistan in a prisoner exchange in 1948.

Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas served the Azad Kashmir government till 1951, and presented the case of Pakistan in the United Nations along with Sardar Muhammad Ibrahim Khan when India asked UNO to resolve the issue, which ended up with forming of the cease-fire line.